Termites and Other Wood Destroying Organisms

Termites are considered beneficial pests as they break down dead and dying plant material. But obviously, termites are not considered beneficial when that dead plant material is the timber in a home or building!

Termites in the Austin, Texas Area

  • Subterranean termites—the most common termites encountered in the United States
  • Drywood termites
  • Rottenwood termites
  • Agricultural termites (also known as grass or desert termites).
    These are not considered structural pests as they eat dead grass and hay.

What Do Termites Look Like?

Subterranean termites live in the soil, as their name suggests. To get to wood that is not in contact with the soil they build mud tubes or tunnels to access the wood.

Several carpenter subterranean termites on wood - Yard Doc - Austin, TXTermites live in large highly organized colonies, including workers, soldiers, and reproductive. The workers do all the work of building the nest and gathering food. They are creamy white, have no eyes, and no wings.

The soldiers have enlarged dark reddish-brown heads with huge mandibles.

The reproductive include amongst others the winged termites that are seen swarming after rains. They have dark-colored flattened bodies and large eyes and two pairs of narrow, equal-sized wings. A single termite queen can lay up to 60 000 eggs in her lifetime.

Swarming typically occurs within ten days of rains. A single colony may have several swarms in a year, and not all colonies will swarm every year. It usually takes a new colony two to three years to start doing serious damage to structural wood.

How to Tell a Termite from an Ant?

The most obvious differences are a thick waist for a termite versus a narrow waist for an ant and straight unsegmented antenna for termites while ants have a segmented antenna.

How to Tell a Winged Termite from a Flying Ant?

The same first two points plus the termites have two pairs of equal-sized wings whereas flying ants have two forewings that are larger than the two hind wings.

Depending on the species, flying termites can range in size between ¼ of an inch and 3/8 of an inch. Flying termites are also known as reproductive stage termites or alates.

They are the kings and queens of potential new colonies. Flying termites are generally darker in color than their white or pale burrowing counterparts. Their darker brown color allows them to leave the colony without losing moisture.

If you notice a swarm of flying termites near your property or home, it is an indication that a new colony of termites is about to start. Discarded wings around doors and windows also indicate that termites have mated, and a new colony is about to be created.

Signs of Termites

Termites - Damage to Wood Structure - YardDocSubterranean termites are mostly not seen, as they are mainly inside the wood. Termites are most commonly seen when they are swarming. Seeing a swarm near a building does not necessarily imply there is a termite pest control problem, but it is a good idea to investigate further.

Tapping wood can indicate hollow zones in wood. Flattened earthen shelter tubes built over concrete or other hard surfaces to get to wood is a telltale sign.

Termite fecal pellets (termite droppings) found outside kick-out holes (small openings in the surface of the wood). Depressions or sagging on a roof or shingles, that could indicate a weak or collapsed area.

Structures should be inspected at least once a year to look for signs of termites.

Conditions that frequently lead to termite problems:

  • Cracks in foundations
  • Wooden posts or supports set in concrete that may be in contact with soil below
  • Leaks in the crawl space below the structure that keep the soil moist
  • Low foundation walls and footings that provide easier soil to wood access
  • Soil filled planters built up against the structure allow direct access to foundation cracks
  • Wooden steps in contact with soil
  • Wooden fences, trellises etc built up against the structure

Termite Damage

It’s a frightening fact that a termite colony of 60,000 can chew through and eat an area of 2”x 4” in just five months. Most termites can eat two to three times their body weight each day. Termite damage can seem like water damage. This includes such damage as buckling wood or swollen floors or ceilings. Termite damage also exudes an odor like mold or mildew.

Termite damage can compromise the structural integrity of your home. When termites eat through support walls, your property then becomes in danger of collapse. Termites are also capable of eating through plaster. This will cause cracks in your drywall, and if the damage is too severe, it may result in the drywall collapsing.

Termite Treatment

There are a few treatments to prevent termite infestations and to eradicate termites. One method is to introduce a termiticide to the soil around the home. This treatment must be carried out by a licensed professional to avoid contaminating drinking water sources etc. Termiticides can also be applied to building materials to help prevent infestations.

Baiting can also prove effective as the worker termites feed the colony, including the king and queen. With sufficient dosage, the bait is passed along to all members of the colony, killing them.

Fun Facts

✓ A Formosan termite queen can lay up to 1000 eggs per day! No wonder they can produce colonies of up to 1 000 000 termites!!

✓ Carpenter ants, unlike termites, do not eat wood but rather excavate it in order to build their nests.

✓ There are 42 species of carpenter ants, with 18 of these found in Texas!

Learn More Facts About Termites

Know thy enemy. When it comes to termites, you can never have enough information. The Texas Insect site has detailed information regarding termite species, behaviors, signs of infestations, and more.

Other Wood Destroying Organisms

While most people know of termites, what most people don’t realize is that there are a number of other insects and organisms that can also do significant damage to wooden structures.

The most common include the following:

  • Powderpost Beetles, including Lyctid Beetles—True Powderpost Beetles
  • Anobiid Beetles—Furniture and Deathwatch Beetles
  • Bostrichid Beetle—False Powderpost Beetle and Horned Powderpost Beetle
  • Non-Powderpost Beetles—Longhorned Beetles
  • Metallic Wood Boring Beetles
  • Carpenter Ants
If you see small shot hole openings in wood surfaces, then you can be pretty sure you have a Powderpost Beetle infestation. In structures, Powderpost Beetles most commonly attack joists, sub-flooring, hardwood flooring, sills, and interior trim.

Request a Free Termite Inspection

Many of these wood-destroying organisms only really take hold if conditions are favorable, the most common problem being excess moisture levels. It is, therefore, a good idea to monitor wood for high moisture levels and if this is found to be the case, then remedial actions should be taken to address this.

If you have any signs of wood destroying organisms in your structure or if you have noticed signs of moisture in the wood or around the wood in a structure, then give YardDoc a call and one of our pest technicians can assist in identifying and resolving the problem.

The YardDoc Management Team

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